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Reverse Aging with Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell News

An ERK-Dependent Feedback Mechanism Prevents Hematopoietic Stem Cell Exhaustion
Baccarini and colleagues identify a cell-intrinsic feedback mechanism limiting the strength of MEK/ERK and AKT/mTORC1 signals during the activation of hematopoietic stem cells. The mechanism hinges on the negative feedback phosphorylation of MEK1 by activated ERK and is required to prevent HSC exhaustion.
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Exit from Naive Pluripotency Induces a Transient X Chromosome Inactivation-like State in Males
Silva and colleagues report that the initiation of X chromosome inactivation takes place in males and on both X chromosomes in females. This is transient and rapid and is triggered by downregulation of naive pluripotent transcription factors during the onset of differentiation.
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An Intermediate Pluripotent State Controlled by MicroRNAs Is Required for the Naive-to-Primed Stem Cell Transition
Du et al. identify an intermediate “poised” pluripotent state characterized by specific mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes and the ability to contribute to mouse chimeras. ISY1-mediated miRNA regulation is necessary and sufficient for establishing poised pluripotency required for the naive-primed transition, providing an explanation for the early embryonic lethality of global miRNA deficiency.
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High-Throughput Screening Enhances Kidney Organoid Differentiation from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells and Enables Automated Multidimensional Phenotyping
Organoids derived from human iPSCs have great potential for drug screening, but their complexity poses a challenge for miniaturization and automation. Freedman and colleagues establish a robotic pipeline to manufacture and analyze kidney organoids in microwell arrays. They apply this system to improve differentiation, measure toxicity, and comprehend disease.
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Fixation and Spread of Somatic Mutations in Adult Human Colonic Epithelium
Winton and colleagues describe stem cell dynamics in normal human colon to identify the efficiency of clone fixation within the epithelium and the rate of subsequent lateral expansion. Against these benchmarks biased stem cell behaviors advantaged in both fixation and expansion can be quantified to predict the age-related burden of pro-oncogenic mutation.
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Epithelial Sodium Channel Regulates Adult Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in a Flow-Dependent Manner
Stem cells need to adapt to signals from the environment to regulate their output. Here, we show the key role of a flow-sensitive ion channel in regulating the activation of adult neural stem cells and their output.
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Single-Cell Transcriptomics Meets Lineage Tracing
In this Review, Kester and van Oudenaarden discuss transcriptome-based lineage trajectory prediction algorithms, single-cell genetic lineage tracing, and the promising combination of these techniques for stem cell and cancer research.
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A Linc1405/Eomes Complex Promotes Cardiac Mesoderm Specification and Cardiogenesis
Kang and colleagues identify linc1405 as a crucial regulator of cardiac differentiation via its interaction with Eomes. Linc1405 mediates an Eomes/WDR5/GCN5 regulatory complex at the Mesp1 enhancer, which coordinates Mesp1 expression and cardiac specification. They also show that linc1405 depletion results in impaired heart development and function in vivo.
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Human Adult Neurogenesis: Evidence and Remaining Questions
Renewed discussion about whether or not adult neurogenesis exists in the human hippocampus, and the nature and strength of the supporting evidence, has been reignited by two prominently published reports with opposite conclusions. Here, we summarize the state of the field and argue that there is currently no reason to abandon the idea that adult-generated neurons make important functional contributions to neural plasticity and cognition across the human lifespan.
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Stem Cell News: Science Daily

A system of check and balances in the blood (Thu, 24 May 2018)
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A first look at the earliest decisions that shape a human embryo (Wed, 23 May 2018)
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Study uncovers cause of pesticide exposure, Parkinson's link (Wed, 23 May 2018)
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Space-like gravity weakens biochemical signals in muscle formation (Wed, 23 May 2018)
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Embryonic mammary gland stem cells identified (Tue, 22 May 2018)
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Flow of cerebrospinal fluid regulates neural stem cell division (Fri, 18 May 2018)
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Immune cell provides cradle for mammary stem cells (Thu, 17 May 2018)
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Robots grow mini-organs from human stem cells (Thu, 17 May 2018)
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Single surface protein boosts multiple oncogenic pathways in acute myeloid leukemia (Thu, 17 May 2018)
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Researchers take key step toward growing human organs in laboratory (Wed, 16 May 2018)
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Elastic microspheres expand understanding of embryonic development and cancer cells (Mon, 14 May 2018)
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Tissue-engineered human pancreatic cells successfully treat diabetic mice (Tue, 08 May 2018)
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Molecule that supports blood-cell production under dietary stress is identified (Mon, 07 May 2018)
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Cancer cells thrive in stiff tissue (Fri, 04 May 2018)
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Gray hair linked to immune system activity and viral infection (Thu, 03 May 2018)
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