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Stem Cell News

Macrophage-Derived Extracellular Succinate Licenses Neural Stem Cells to Suppress Chronic Neuroinflammation
Peruzzotti-Jametti et al. demonstrate that somatic and directly induced brain stem cells injected into the cerebrospinal fluid of mice with experimental multiple sclerosis ameliorate chronic neuroinflammation. Grafted stem cells use SUCNR1 to decrease the inflammatory metabolite succinate, thus inducing a metabolic switch in endogenous macrophages and microglia toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype.
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CD150high Bone Marrow Tregs Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Quiescence and Immune Privilege via Adenosine
Hirata et al. identify a regulatory T cell (Treg) population that localizes in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche with high-level expression of CD150, an HSC marker. These niche-associated Tregs maintain HSC quiescence and immune privilege through adenosine. Furthermore, transfer of niche Tregs significantly improves allogeneic HSC engraftment.
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Autologous iPSC-Based Vaccines Elicit Anti-tumor Responses In Vivo
Wu and colleagues show that cancer immunity against multiple types of cancer can be achieved using an easily generalizable iPSC-based cancer vaccine. This immunity is based on overlapping epitopes between iPSCs and cancer cells and can also be achieved by reactivating the immune system as an adjuvant immunotherapy.
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Engineering Stem and Stromal Cell Therapies for Musculoskeletal Tissue Repair
Loebel and Burdick highlight emerging bioengineering strategies using stem and stromal cells for musculoskeletal tissue repair, particularly focusing on the development of biomaterials for capturing aspects of the native tissue environment, altering the healing niche, and recruiting endogenous cells.
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CD157 Marks Tissue-Resident Endothelial Stem Cells with Homeostatic and Regenerative Properties
Whether tissue-resident vascular endothelial stem cells (VESCs) exist has remained unclear. The present study demonstrates that CD157 marks vessel-resident VESCs in mouse organs that are capable of clonal expansion, angiogenesis initiation, and blood vessel maintenance. These findings represent a paradigm shift in understanding endothelial cell hierarchy within the blood vessels.
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Could Failure in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Justify Editing the Human Embryo Genome?
It has been argued that developing any approach involving genetic modifications of human embryos is unnecessary because couples at risk of transmitting a serious genetic disease already have a straightforward alternative to prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) (Cyranoski, 2015). However, this argument does not take into account the burden of PGD, and its low chance of success, as a large number of viable embryos are discarded because they are affected.
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Human Pancreatic Tumor Organoids Reveal Loss of Stem Cell Niche Factor Dependence during Disease Progression
Sato and colleagues established a library of patient-derived pancreas cancer organoids and identified heterogeneous patterns of dependency on Wnt ligands among pancreas cancers. Biological and genetic analyses highlighted GATA6 as a mediator of the Wnt niche requirement, which links pancreatic tumor progression to independence from the stem cell niche.
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Temporal Layering of Signaling Effectors Drives Chromatin Remodeling during Hair Follicle Stem Cell Lineage Progression
How external signals interface with chromatin to coax stem cells along distinct tissue lineage programs remains a mystery. Here, Adam et al. combine epigenomic, genetic, single-cell transcriptome, and chromatin sensor data to show how new fates are acquired through temporal layering of signaling effectors atop established chromatin platforms.
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Stem Cell News: Science Daily

Stem cell study may result in stronger muscles in old age (Fri, 23 Feb 2018)
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Mutation explains why some people are more vulnerable to viral brain infection (Thu, 22 Feb 2018)
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Scientists isolate cancer stem cells using novel method (Thu, 22 Feb 2018)
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Looking for the origins of schizophrenia (Thu, 22 Feb 2018)
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Minimizing risks of transplants (Wed, 21 Feb 2018)
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Similarities found in cancer initiation in kidney, liver, stomach, pancreas (Wed, 21 Feb 2018)
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Spare parts from small parts: Novel scaffolds to grow muscle (Tue, 20 Feb 2018)
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Progress in pursuit of sickle cell cure (Fri, 16 Feb 2018)
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Lab-grown human cerebellar cells yield clues to autism (Fri, 16 Feb 2018)
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Adult endothelial stem cells can make fully functional blood vessels (Thu, 15 Feb 2018)
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Could sugar chains be the answer to bone growth in osteoporosis? (Wed, 14 Feb 2018)
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In effort to treat rare blinding disease, researchers turn stem cells into blood vessels (Tue, 13 Feb 2018)
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Clues to aging found in stem cells' genomes (Tue, 13 Feb 2018)
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Efficient technique discovered for isolating embryonic stem cells in cows (Fri, 09 Feb 2018)
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Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time (Thu, 08 Feb 2018)
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