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Reverse Aging with Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell News

Distinct Molecular Trajectories Converge to Induce Naive Pluripotency
Stuart et al. report distinct routes of reprogramming to naive pluripotency. These differ in their transcriptional trajectories, mechanistic requirements, and developmental parallels, thus demonstrating considerable flexibility for a given cell identity transition to occur. Distinct routes converge on precise Oct4 expression, which is necessary and sufficient for naive pluripotency induction.
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Defining the Identity and Dynamics of Adult Gastric Isthmus Stem Cells
Using lineage-tracing assays and single-cell gene expression profiling, Han et al. show that the mouse gastric corpus gland is compartmentalized, with base and isthmus regions supported by two separate independent stem cell populations. Isthmus stem cells are rapidly cycling, with a broad expression signature, and undergo “punctuated” neutral drift dynamics.
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Outcompeting p53-Mutant Cells in the Normal Esophagus by Redox Manipulation
Normal human esophagus contains p53 mutant progenitors. Fernandez-Antoran and colleagues show that p53 mutant progenitors outcompete their wild-type neighbors after low-dose ionizing radiation. This effect is reversed by antioxidant pretreatment. p53 mutant cells can be displaced from normal tissues via the improvement of the competitive fitness of wild-type progenitors.
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Generation of Human PSC-Derived Kidney Organoids with Patterned Nephron Segments and a De Novo Vascular Network
Human PSC-derived organoids are an amenable platform for understanding human development and diseases despite numerous limitations. Low et al. establish a versatile platform for generating vascularized and patterned kidney organoids. Using this platform, they identified a non-conventional origin of renal vasculature and recapitulated ARPKD cystogenesis in vitro.
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Remodeling of Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niches Promotes Myeloid Cell Expansion during Premature or Physiological Aging
Recent studies have suggested a microenvironmental contribution to stem-cell aging, but the mechanisms are largely unexplored. Méndez-Ferrer et al. report anatomical remodeling of blood-stem-cell-supporting niches and functional switch of β adrenergic signals, leading to myeloid expansion during aging. Targeting the microenvironment can improve pathological, premature, niche-dependent hematopoietic aging in mice.
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Stress-Induced Changes in Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Populations Revealed through Single-Cell Protein Expression Mapping
Severe et al. used single-cell mass cytometry to define 28 subsets of bone marrow stromal cells based on protein expression. Cytokine production and response to stress functionally selected niche candidates. While LeptinR+ and Nestin+ cells were lost with conditioning, CD73+ subpopulations contribute to HSPC engraftment and acute hematopoietic recovery.
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TNF-α Coordinates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Survival and Myeloid Regeneration
Passegué and colleagues reveal a complex role for TNF-α in hematopoietic regeneration. Inflammation-induced TNF-α eliminates myeloid progenitors but prevents HSC necroptosis and initiates emergency myelopoiesis through NF-κB-dependent mechanisms, hence promoting HSC survival and hematopoietic regeneration. Persistent TNF-α-driven hematopoietic regeneration underlies chronic inflammation and can contribute to aging and malignant hematopoiesis.
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Engineering Genetic Predisposition in Human Neuroepithelial Stem Cells Recapitulates Medulloblastoma Tumorigenesis
Huang, Tailor, et al. show that neuroepithelial stem (NES) cells derived from normal induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a renewable human cell-based resource to evaluate genetic mutations in medulloblastoma. Misexpression of MYCN in both otherwise-normal NES cells and PTCH1+/− NES cells derived from patients with Gorlin syndrome each generated medulloblastoma in mice.
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Stem Cell News: Science Daily

Mini kidneys grown from stem cells give new insights into kidney disease and therapies (Tue, 20 Aug 2019)
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Scientists reverse aging process in rat brain stem cells (Wed, 14 Aug 2019)
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Bacteria made to mimic cells, form communities (Mon, 12 Aug 2019)
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Novel dual stem cell therapy improving cardiac regeneration (Fri, 09 Aug 2019)
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A new method of tooth repair? Scientists uncover mechanisms to inform future treatment (Fri, 09 Aug 2019)
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Adding MS drug to targeted cancer therapy may improve glioblastoma outcomes (Thu, 08 Aug 2019)
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Study links progenitor cells to age-related prostate growth (Tue, 06 Aug 2019)
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Researchers make immunotherapy work for treatment-resistant lymphoma (Mon, 05 Aug 2019)
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Old cells, new tricks: important clue to AML diagnosis and treatment discovered (Thu, 01 Aug 2019)
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Assessing direct-to-consumer stem cell clinics (Thu, 01 Aug 2019)
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Uncovering secrets of bone marrow cells and how they differentiate (Wed, 31 Jul 2019)
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Targeting a blood stem cell subset shows lasting, therapeutically relevant gene editing (Wed, 31 Jul 2019)
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Skin in balance: Joint forces of polarity and cell mechanics (Tue, 30 Jul 2019)
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Stem cell research sheds new light on the skin (Tue, 30 Jul 2019)
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Mechanical forces control cell fate during brain formation (Mon, 29 Jul 2019)
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