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Reverse Aging with Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell News

hESC-Derived Thalamic Organoids Form Reciprocal Projections When Fused with Cortical Organoids
Xiang and colleagues report a method for generating human thalamus-like brain organoids (hThOs) that recapitulate the development of human thalamus. By fusing hThOs and cortical-like brain organoids (hCOs), they establish a 3D system in a dish to create the reciprocal projections between thalamus and cortex.
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Voices: The Importance of Fetal Tissue Research
The value of fetal tissue research cannot be understated and has led to remarkable advances in understanding human development, therapeutic discovery, and stem cell research across many organ systems. We asked 9 researchers to reflect on the impact and key contributions of fetal tissue in their field of expertise.
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De Novo PITX1 Expression Controls Bi-Stable Transcriptional Circuits to Govern Self-Renewal and Differentiation in Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Self-renewal and differentiation programs are critical determinants of tissue homeostasis and tumor growth. Sastre-Perona et al. identify a cancer-specific PITX1-, SOX2-, and TRP63-dependent transcriptional feed-forward circuit that governs self-renewal and squamous cell carcinoma growth as it inhibits KLF4-dependent differentiation.
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EGFR-Aurka Signaling Rescues Polarity and Regeneration Defects in Dystrophin-Deficient Muscle Stem Cells by Increasing Asymmetric Divisions
Wang et al. found that EGFR-Aurka signaling in muscle stem cells acts to direct apicobasally oriented mitoses and asymmetric cell division. EGF treatment rescues the reduction of asymmetric divisions in dystrophin-deficient satellite cells in mdx mice, resulting in increased numbers of progenitors and enhanced regeneration.
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Aging Disrupts Muscle Stem Cell Function by Impairing Matricellular WISP1 Secretion from Fibro-Adipogenic Progenitors
Feige and colleagues report that aging impairs matricellular signals in the skeletal muscle stem cell niche by affecting the function of fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs). Aged FAPs secrete less matricellular WISP1, leading to impaired myogenic commitment of muscle stem cells (MuSCs). Restoration of WISP1 levels in the aged niche rejuvenates MuSCs and improves muscle regeneration.
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Organoid-Induced Differentiation of Conventional T Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
Montel-Hagen and colleagues developed an efficient and standardized organoid system (PSC-ATOs) to induce hematopoietic specification and the generation of conventional naive T cells from human pluripotent stem cells. This method also permitted the generation of naive, antigen-specific T cells with anti-tumor activity from TCR-engineered PSCs.
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FOXO3-Engineered Human ESC-Derived Vascular Cells Promote Vascular Protection and Regeneration
Yan et al. switch a pair of nucleotides in FOXO3 and endow human vascular cells with the ability to resist senescence, stress, and tumorigenesis. This study demonstrates that activated FOXO3 contributes to the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, providing a strategy for the generation of higher-quality transplants for stem cell-based therapy.
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Restricted Hematopoietic Progenitors and Erythropoiesis Require SCF from Leptin Receptor+ Niche Cells in the Bone Marrow
Bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells reside in perivascular niches associated with sinusoids and require factors from leptin receptor+ stromal cells and endothelial cells. Morrison and colleagues show that c-kit+-restricted hematopoietic progenitors also require Stem Cell Factor made by LepR+ cells, but not endothelial cells. At least some of these restricted progenitors reside in perisinusoidal niches.
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Cholesterol Metabolism Is a Druggable Axis that Independently Regulates Tau and Amyloid-β in iPSC-Derived Alzheimer’s Disease Neurons
van der Kant et al. performed a repurposing drug screen in iPSC-derived AD neurons and identified compounds that reduce aberrant accumulation of phosphorylated Tau (pTau). Reduction of cholesteryl ester levels or allosteric activation of CYP46A1 by lead compounds enhanced pTau degradation independently of APP and Aβ.
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Stem Cell News: Science Daily

Researchers define cells used in bone repair (Wed, 20 Feb 2019)
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Young bone marrow rejuvenates aging mouse brains (Wed, 20 Feb 2019)
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New therapeutic approach to treating osteoarthritis (Tue, 19 Feb 2019)
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Drug to rejuvenate muscle cells (Fri, 15 Feb 2019)
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Can we repair the brain? The promise of stem cell technologies for treating Parkinson's disease (Thu, 14 Feb 2019)
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Human cells can change job to fight diabetes (Thu, 14 Feb 2019)
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What happens to magnetic nanoparticles once in cells? (Thu, 14 Feb 2019)
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New insight into use of cell replacement therapies to treat muscular dystrophies (Wed, 13 Feb 2019)
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More efficient system to reprogram stem cells (Tue, 12 Feb 2019)
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Antibody could increase cure rate for blood, immune disorders (Mon, 11 Feb 2019)
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Vitamin D and immune cells stimulate bone marrow disease (Fri, 08 Feb 2019)
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Researchers develop human cell-based model to study small cell lung cancer (Fri, 08 Feb 2019)
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Scientists generate functional, transplantable B cells from mice (Thu, 07 Feb 2019)
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Folliculin mutations disrupt embryo implantation (Thu, 07 Feb 2019)
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In their DNA: Rotator cuff stem cells more likely to develop into fat cells (Wed, 06 Feb 2019)
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